Ñielol Hill Natural Monument

Ñielol Hill Natural Monument is located in Temuco in the South of Chile

Ñielol Hill Natural Monument is located in Temuco in the South of Chile

(Hill with Holes)

The Ñielol Hill Natural Monument is a great symbol of the struggle to achieve domination over the Araucanía. It is placed only five blocks from the center of Temuco. Declared Tourist National Park in 1939, the Ñielol Hill started to be administered like a protected Wild Area on the 70’s by the Forest National Corporation (CONAF).

The Ñielol Hill Natural Monument has become in a must-take stroll for the visitor. In its 207,57 acres abounds an arboreal vegetation is possible to observe..

In one of the viewpoints of the Ñielol Hill Natural Monument, five imposing chamemules (wooden statues) were raised in memory of the parliament of 1881, which it ended with the hostilities between mapuches and Spaniards.

The Ñielol Hill Natural Monument lodges one of the last native forests of the intermediate depression of the center-south valley of Chile. Today, surrounded by population centers and farming areas, has become in a true vegetation island, that serves as a shelter for an endless number of species in search of refuge, food and suitable breeding sites.

Because of its warm climatic influences received from the central zone, together with the humidity of the Valdivian forest, turn it in an area of great biological diversity. It is administered by the Forest National Corporation, CONAF, organization in charge of guard for its protection and handling.

Flora

Olivillos (Aetoxicon punctatum), peumos (white Cryptocarya), oaks (Nothofagus obliqua), maitenes (boaria Maytenus), hazels (Gevuina hazelnut), boldos (Peumus boldus), lingues (Persea lingue), laurels (Laurelia sempervirens), ulmos (Eucryphia cordifolia), huilli-pataguas (mucronata Citronella) and arrayanes (apiculata Luma) are some of the present arboreal species in the Ñielol hill. This great variety is because that to located in an intermediate zone, presenting typical varieties of the Intermediate Depression of the South Center Zone and characteristic species of the Valdivian forest.

Many of these species are chilean, but nonnative of the region. This is due to an attempt to install a zoo, project that did not prosper, but the flora of the central zone which it stood to acclimate the zoological, got pretty good results. For example, lleuque (Andean Prumnopitys), endemic species that is in the cordilleran side hill of the Andes, between the 1.640 and 3.280,84 feet above the sea level, nevertheless, was planted in the Monument, having in this case, an exotic character, since it doesn’t belong to the ecosystem of the place, like the rest of the foreign species.

Specifically, the flora of the Ñielol Hill Natural Monument includes 15 endemic plants of Chile, 70 native ones, 16 of sub-Antarctica distribution, and 5 that it doesn’t have been reported in other Wild Areas of the IX region. In the same way, it has been detected around 35 medicinal herbs, in addition to the presence of our national flower: copihue. In sum, the Ñielol Hill Natural Monument has a total of 242 species of which, 58% are native.

Fauna

In general, most of the mammals are transhumances in the zone of the Ñielol Hill. Between the certain carnivores we can find the fox chilla (Pseudalopex griseus), culpeo fox (P. culpaeus), felines as the guiñe (Oncifelis guigna) and some mustélidos like quique (Galactis cuja), and chingue (skunk) (Conepatus chinga). The exception is made by the micro mammals, habitual residents, between them stands out the mouse of the hawthorns (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus); oliváceo little mouse (Abrothrix olivaceus), fleecy little mouse (A. longipilis), big ear rat of Darwin (Phyllotis darwini), among other cricétidos. One of the present species, and exclusive of Chile, is the denominated marsupial “Monkey of Monte” (Dromiciops gliroides), being this one, a typical inhabitant of the humid forest. All these species are intimately bound up to the formation of Quila (tree) (Chusquea quila).

The Ñielol Hill is a great spot for birdwatching. Throughout the year, it is possible to observe around 63 species, jotes (vulture) of black head (Coragyps atratus), bandurrias (Theristicus caudatus), hued-hued of the south (Pteroptochos tarnii), pitío (Colaptes pitius), wood pigeon (araucana Columba) and eaglets (Buteo polyosoma), to name some.

In addition, it has identified 7 species of reptiles, between which to stand out: the two species of serpents present in the South zone, the snake of long tail (Philodryas chamissonis), the one of short tail, (Tachymenis chilensis), and species of small lizards like the weeping lizard (Liolaemus chilensis), green small lizard (L. to cyanogaster) and the mount small lizard (montícola L.); and 3 species of amphibians like the little toads of Darwin (Rhinoderma darwini), and the Chilean great frog (caudiverbera Caudiverbera), jointly with a large diversity of insects.

“The Patagua”

“The Patagua of the Armistice”, is a Natural site that from 1881 remembers the commitment of peace and strength signed between the Mapuche people and the Chilean Government. It says that the foundation of the city of Temuco was the result of an agreement, between the Mapuche people and the Chilean Government of that time that, was made it under one patagua. The exact location is not clear. The people says that it was in the proximities of the Tucapel Regiment or in the master workshop of Railroads, but to commemorate symbolically the event, a conmemorative plaque was placed in the Ñielol hill. Lamentably, a terrorist attack destroyed the plaque, and at the moment only the called tree huilli-patagua reminds the historical pact.

An Environmental Information center, paved footpaths and parking, informative houses, permanent guards (eight park rangers), guided routes of access for pedestrians and vehicles, trekking sites and a restaurant in the summit are some of the services that can be found in the Ñielol Hill Natural Monument.

150,000 visitors come annually to this natural monument.

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