Temuco

(Water of Temu)

Temuco, South of Chile

Temuco, South of Chile

Temuco is the capital of the ninth region of the Araucanía. It is located to 416,32 mi to the south of Santiago and has around 300.000 inhabitants. It is a beautiful and mighty city that concentrates most of the administrative activities, industrial and commercial of the region. Temuco is in front of the “island” of earth between the rivers Cautín and Toltén, which were the trembling heart, warrior and more populated with the mapuche town. Its name in Mapuche language (mapudungum) means `water of temu’. Temu is a medicinal plant used by the native people for its diseases.

Temuco constitutes a center from which start diverse tourist circuits. Its modern infrastructure, with interesting contemporary architecture and commercial centers, defines as the most important sector of the South zone center.

Between the main attractiveness of Temuco are the National Reserve Ñielol Hill, place with great historical importance that keeps a flora and interesting fauna. Tray to visit the located railway museum in the ex- Machines House, which contains steam locomotives (from 1907 to 1953) and eight cars of passengers, all good conserved.

The urban center of Temuco begins in the leafy and green square Aníbal Pinto, in which an artisan fair in February is made. It will find the Municipal Market, attractive place that presents the most assorted supply of mapuche crafts, in addition to the Creole typical gastronomy.

Towards to the residential sector of Temuco you will find with the beautiful Germany Avenue in which the Regional Museum is lodged, with an important ethnographic collection of the mapuche culture.

History of Temuco

Mapuche woman in Temuco

Mapuche woman in Temuco

Pedro de Valdivia discovered these earths, and astonished by the smooth hill landscape, with cleared spaces of forest, where a sedentary mapuche town cultivated its fields, said of Temuco in his letters. “In the world there is nothing comparable”.

In 1552, on the side of the Cautín River, Valdivia installed the Imperial City in tribute to Carlos V. was located to 34,18 mi of the Temuco city to the coast, where today it is Carahue, in the confluence of the Cautín rivers and las Damas. Founded on a promontory, with dominion towards the south of the mapuche “island”, had communication by the river until the sea and easy access by the routes of the coast.

The city of Temuco was founded in February 24 of 1881 on privileged surroundings, bounded by the Cautín River and the Ñielol Hill. It was in charge of Minister Manuel Recabarren who created the Fortification Recabarren or Temuco.

The pass from fort to town and soon city was a fast process for Temuco. Been born as a result of a military task, Temuco had in its beginnings the characteristics of a camping and a year after of its birth, already the streets were insinuated conforming today, the anxious center of the regional capital. The varied and nourishing group of men and women, who had the task of raising this city, never imagined the vertiginous development of Temuco, the one that already visualized in those first years. In 1883 began to arrive the first foreign colonies, which, until 1894, reached more than 7000 of nine different nationalities, mainly Spanish, Germans, French, Swiss and English distributed between the provinces of Malleco and Cautín. Great part of these colons was not agriculturists and soon they emigrated to the towns to create commerce and industries.

Just a short time later, in April 15 of 1888, already were chosen to the authorities that conformed the first Municipality, where appeared like Mayor Jose del Rosario Muñoz. The multiethnic conformation that characterizes it had in its origins not only in the high percentage of mapuche population, but also in the arrival of numerous colons like Germans and French.

The fast population growth of the city of Temuco already was appraised in the first years; in 1895 a census established a population of 7,708 people and, when the province of Cautín was created, when Temuco became capital, this number increased until 16,037 inhabitants.

Before the 15 birthday of the city already the train had arrived at Temuco. It had to this moment a bank, several hotels, clubs with rooms of game, mills, breweries and houses of brokerage of exploration of his main products: wheat and crust of lingue to tan leathers.

Mapuche culture

(Earth People)

To the arrival of the Spaniards, the Mapuches already occupied the zone between the Itata and the Toltén River. They call themselves Mapuches, Mapu: earth and Che: people, that is to say, Earth People. The Spaniards gave them the name of araucanos, a designation of the place on where they founded the fort. This is its history, but is also important emphasize its rich artistic mapuche production in fields so varied as Literature, the painting, the sculpture, the theater and music, production that, sustained in the property to an ancestral tradition and to a deep spiritual relation, can serve as bridge in the communication between cultures.

This is the Mapuche Culture, culture that is one of the bases of the Chilean nationality constitutions and it has been able to preserve its traditions in front to the overwhelming force of the western culture. These are the characteristics that still last in the population that belongs to this ethnic group and who lives, works and feels to Temuco like their city and the Araucanía like their Region.

The family mapuche: the social nucleus was the family, who could be polygamist (the man could have the womens who could maintain). To greater amount of women, greater is the economic power, since she was who wove and cultivated the Land. Also there were monogamists’ families; this was the commonest type of marriage in this indigenous community.

The woman mapuche was the economic support of the araucana community, assumed the major part of the tasks of, like the raising of the children, the care of the house, the preparation of foods, clothes and the sowings. A father who had a lot of daughters could feel lucky for the reason that counts with an abundant labour force.

Marriage mapuche: it was a transaction of purchase of the bride, the future son-in-law had to compensate to the father of the loss of the labour force of the daughter with a certain amount of properties. The married agreement followed with a ritual act, the simulation of a kidnapping. The friends of the groom with him, assaulted to the bride and her friends, who had to defend her before the groom, in agreement with the established, thing to obtain it.

The religion mapuche: The religion of this town had a clear animistic sense, that is to say, the attribution of spirits to the animated or inanimate nature, able to generate so much the good as the bad. In order to be protected, the mapuche invoked to the Pillán, supreme and creative God of all the things that dwelled in volcanoes. They thought that the death people had another life after the death.

The Weather of Temuco

When visiting the city of Temuco, remembers the characteristics of the weather.

In this information it is tried to give a characterization of the weather of Temuco, according with the result of the measurements made in the Weather station of the Catholic University of Temuco, from 1981 to the actual time.

One first general description of the weather of Temuco, frequently used in Literature, is: “Tempered Climate Rainy, with short station of drought”. Also, “Tempered Mediterranean Climate, with daily and seasonal periodic-photo, and abundant precipitations in the cold months”.

The previous thing, it is come off that the tendency is to characterize the climate, mainly, from the Temperature and the Precipitation. However, in this information it will be including in addition, other parameters.

The Temperature of Temuco

From the point of view of the temperature, Temuco presents, during the year, clear differences showing an annual oscillation of 9° C between January and July, for the average temperature. The annual thermal oscillation of the maximum averages is de13° C and of 6° C for the minimum averages.

On the other hand, the absolute extremes observed in the period of 1981 1998, vary between -5° C (June) and 37° C (February).

In summary: the weather of Temuco presents noticeable seasonal variations defining cold, warm and tempering months.

Precipitations in Temuco.

The annual precipitation average of the period in the zone of Temuco is of about 45,2756 in distributed between January and December. That is to say, the precipitation appears during every month of the year, concentrating in the cold months (April to August).

Relative humidity of the Air.

The annual behavior of the air humidity also presents an annual variation. In terms of monthly average values, every month of the year present a high humidity (greater to 50%). Nevertheless, the minimum registries of relative humidity monthly averages reach as low values as 35%, with absolute values of 15%.

The Solar Radiation.

The energy received of the Sun during the year appears next with the global radiation monthly daily average, for period 1992 to 1998, expressed in Megajoule/m2 day: Rapidity and Wind direction.

The dynamic characteristics of the air are evaluated from the direction and rapidity of the wind. To stands out the predominance of the directions with the component West.

What to know in a visit by the city of Temuco:

It is recommended to know in your visit to the city of Temuco, Aníbal Pinto Square, is surrounded by commercial buildings. Observe how these have been appropriate of the traditionally are around to a square; the Municipality is after the fronts of a store of departments and the Cathedral, of simple forms and beautiful interior, to gave its bell tower to a building of offices. Masses in summer Monday to Friday to 12:25pm hours, Saturdays to 12:15pm and the 19 hours, Sunday to 9am, 11am and 12pm hours; in winter from Monday to Friday to 12:15pm hours, Saturday to 12:15pm and the 20 hours, Sunday to 9am, 11am and the 12pm hours.

Within the square, shaded by great tulip trees, is the expressive monument to the Araucanía and a modern room with temporary exhibitions. During February a fair of regional crafts is made.

Also of great tourist value of Temuco it is the Market, inaugurated in 1929, is the traditional place of mapuche crafts sale. Who knows to look for will find many surprises: there are objects of silver, textiles, wood carvings, basketwork and, even, valuable mapuches antiques. Also it is possible to tasted Creole food and products of the sea in its restaurants, opened from October to March, Monday to Saturday from 8am to 20 hours, Sunday and holydays from 8:30am to 15 hours, from April to September of Monday to Saturday from 8am to 18 hours; Sunday and holydays from 8:30 to 15 hours.

Another place to find typical things of the zone is the Free Fair Pinto, where the mapuches craftsmen arrive direct from the reductions. The bargaining is part of the sale for mapuche people, but remembers that each object represents the laborious work of a craftswoman throughout the winter. The summer schedule is from Monday to Sunday of 8:30am to 17 hours; winter until the 16 hours.

In Temuco it is the Regional Museum of the Araucanía, declared National Monument, Created in 1940, is dedicated to the anthropology, archaeology and mapuche ethnology, as well as to the history of the conquest and “pacification” of the Araucanía. Its valuable collection appears in thematic rooms and an interactive educative room. In addition, it has a specialized library. It is installed in that were the residence of Carlos Thiers built in 1924 and preceded of magnificent trees of the time. It deserves a calmed visit. You will be able to visit it from March to December from Tuesday to Friday of 10am to 17:30 hours, Saturday of 11am to 17:30 hours, holidays and Sundays of 11am to 14 hours. From December the schedule is subject to modifications. Entrance is paid; Holydays, Sundays and, Tuesdays to Saturday, is free children under 10 years old do not pay.

Attractive for the tourists also is the artisan factory of the Catholic University from Temuco, where reproductions of silver mapuche elaborated. Count with room of sale, the schedule is during all year, from Monday to Friday of 9am to 13 hours and 15 to 19 hours. The entrance is free.

Opened to the general public in Temuco also it is the Municipal Swimming pool pleasant and fresh, with well cares gardens, it also has fields of soccer, tennis, skating, hockey, bike-cross and a good restaurant. Attention from December to March every day of 13 to 19 hours.

The Anglican Church Saint Trinidad of Temuco, was constructed in 1906 and emphasizes for get a group of buildings with beautiful stained glass windows.

You shouldn’t miss in Temuco the Ñielol Hill, whose meaning in mapudungum is Hill with Holes. It is a Natural Monument, of 221.16 acres, administered by CONAF. In its information center are given information about the protected green areas of IX region. Count in addition with four footpaths, games for children and a restaurant. Go up by the vehicular way, surrounded by enormous trees, until the viewpoint, that offers beautiful panoramic of the city and its surroundings. The Ñielol Hill is open every day of the year, of 8am to 23 hours. Entrance $700 general, children $200. The Values are subject to changes.

In the denominated place the Patagua (signalized) is commemorates symbolically the celebration of the parliament between mapuches and the Army of Chile in 1881, where the local inhabitants gave the lands to raise the city and they accepted to coexist peacefully. Here there is a ceremonial center and mapuches pray, where this town maintains part of its traditions and culture.

For a visit with children to Temuco the Zoological Park of Temuco, located to 3,11 miles to the north of the city of Temuco is very interesting. Count with around 380 animals, among them bears, pumas, foxes, pudús, hares, maras, monkeys, sprocket wheels, crocodiles and serpents. The animals have the Maxima possible freedom, allowing the visitor to have a direct bonding with them. The zoological has, in addition, a laboratory, a classroom, a library for scholastic activities and an area of picnic. The attention schedule is from December to February from Monday to Sunday of 10am to 20 hours; from March to November, Monday to Sunday of 9am to 18 hours. The entrance is for general public$1500; children and elderly people $1000.

Tourism of the Lacustrine Zone

By its geographic location, the city of Temuco is the front door to the denominated Lacustrine zone in the Ninth Region, which includes the attractive and well-known sectors of beaches like Villarrica and Pucón, those that in the 2000 year were declared – by the National Service of Tourism of Chile (SERNATUR) – like sites of tourist interest due to the numerous range of alternative that this zone offers to the visitors.

This destiny of tourist resources of international level is located in the Southeastern end of the city of Temuco in the Ninth region and it is around the lakes Villarrica, Huilipilún, Colico, Caburgua and Calafquén, connecting in addition, with Argentina through Border Step to Mamuil Malal.

This zone has a great attractive landscape, by its wooded vegetation, hills, and national parks. Within its natural wealth, it emphasizes the locality of Villarrica the one that counts with the imposing Villarrica Volcano, in addition to an abundant supply of thermal and recreational activity; also the unmistakable black sand of volcanic origin of the Great Beach of Pucón.

The lakes of this destiny are very known by the beaches associated to them. Licán Ray to borders of Calafquén Lake with its Beaches Great and Small; Caburgua in Caburgua Lake with its Beaches White and Black; Pucón to borders of Villarrica Lake and its Great Beach, among others.

Attractive Near Temuco

Agro tourism Cobulto Marsh

It is located to 19,88 mi to the east of the city of Temuco, by the asphalted route to Cunco. In this place it will find comfortable facilities of camping with a surface of around 164,04 feet square, each one with facilities of light and water, tables roofs, furnace, baths with hot water and swimming pool. As complement, spaces for the practice of sports are offered, like field of soccer and volleyball, infantile games and others. In addition, it will be able to enjoy German onces (tee time) prepared by the owner of hostelry.

Swiss country house

Is located in the The Rinconada Ranch to only 2,49 mi from Freire, way to Teodoro Schmidt. It is a big country house that was constructed in 1942. Rustic activities are offered in addition to accommodation and typical food of the country side. The big country house counts with terrace, two reading rooms, a living room, dining room, cooks and rooms to lodge up to 16 people with individual and shared baths. Between the activities that are offered are the long walks by the forests, visits to the dairy barn, to milks, egg collecting, among others. The farm is to borders of the Toltén River which also gives the possibility to the visitors to practicing the fishing.

Center of Ecoturismo the Baita-Conguillio

It is located to 11,18 mi of the city of Melipeuco, by the way that lead to the National Park Conguillio, nailed in the feet of the mountain with wonderful surroundings that offer a program for a minimum of 6 people and 10 maximum, that consisting of making an excursion to the Green Lagoon, where is possible to enjoy a refreshing bath and picnic. The price includes the entrance to the National Park Conguillio, does not include mobilization.

Ñuke Ruca (hut)

Is the typical mapuche house in which the visitor will be able to know the customs through cultural manifestations. In this place it will be able to share next to the host family part of their history. Within the activities that can be made is the participation in the elaboration of crafts in clay and the mapuche silvery, which also is available for the sale.

It is located in Padre las Casas sector, way to Huichahue in kilometer 10, where it must take a deflection towards the sector of Trumpulo Small (signalized like Momberg Bridge). The Ruca is to 1,86 mi by debris way.

San Pablo Ranch

Asphalted way to Cunco, is located to 30,45 mi to the east of Temuco, the access is signalized. Tourist activities Associate to agricultural practices like dairy, sowings, activities related to greenhouse, breeding grounds, chicken houses and cavalcades are offered. There are Cabins, camping sites and picnic, cooks and swimming pool.

Trailanqui

is located to 3,11 mi of the Laureles way to Colico Lake and 55 minutes of Temuco. Count with hotel, convention center, warm swimming pool, cabins and camping to the border of the Curaco River. Rent of bicycles and horses is offered. Also it is possible to visit milks, the deer and the hen house. There are Footpaths for long walks and are monitors to guide the activities.

Weche Ruka

It is located in the Mapuche Community of Antonio Weche to 9,32 mi of Temuco by a secondary way in the Temuco-Cunco way. In the place it will be able to know the beliefs and customs of the Mapuche life sharing next to the families of the community. The visitors observe ancestral experiences, and the community shows them the typical gastronomy, crafts, the work in loom, spinning and weaves.

Railway museum Pablo Neruda in Temuco

This museum comes to commemorate the centenary of the birth of the poet Pablo Neruda. It was inaugurated in February 24 of 2004 by the President of the Republic, Ricardo Lagos. In this place the old trains can be seen showing the life of the region and in where will be able to be known the better way the Pablo Neruda’s work.

This enclosure was property of the Company Railways of the State of Chile until the 2001 year, date in which to these dependencies in quality of equipment and green areas to the Municipality of Temuco were given.

Pablo Neruda spent part of his life in the master work shop of Temuco. In his youth Neftalí Reyes Basoalto, grew between the machines that his father, a railway conductor guided between Temuco and Santiago. All his life was related to locomotive rails and, by the same way, in the centenary of his birth, the trains cannot be absent.

The museum counts with diverse types of locomotives, cars and wagons each one with information about the model, weight, etc. In addition, there is the possibility to cross by the interior of each one of them. One of its greater attractions is the presidential wagon:

The Presidential Wagon

This locomotive denominated ES Nº1 (Servicio Especial) (Special Service) was constructed in 1923 in Germany by the Linke factory Hofmann Lauchhammer this is the wagon that used the Chief Director of FF.CC of that time,. Later in 1954, the President of Argentina, Juan Domingo Perón, visited our country and he used it like official wagon. In this wagon presidents like Jorge Alessandri Rodriguez, Eduardo Frei Montalva, Salvador Allende Gossens and Patricio Aylwin Azócar traveled. In addition, Gabriela Mistral had the honor to travel in this wagon after an official welcomed that she had in Valparaiso in the fifties decade before died in EE.UU. This presidential wagon has two dormitories in suite, a Normandy style living-dinning room, upholstered in black leather color and its interior is plated in roots of walnut.

The railway museum is located in the ex- House of the Machines, to the northeast of the city of Temuco, in sector of New Town. Its schedule of attention is from Tuesday to Sunday of 9:00am to 18:00 hours in continued schedule. It must pay an entrance price, for visit the dependencies of the museum.

** Information related to Hours, Rates and Dates might change without any previous notice **